Occupied East Jerusalem - With a dramatic wave of his arm out the car window, Sheikh Abdullah Alqam signalled the invisible line that marks the Jerusalem municipal boundary.
"You just left the Palestinian Authority area. Now you are in Jerusalem!" he bellowed, passing a bin that overflowed with rubbish.
"All of this waste will be burned," added Sheikh Alqam, 53, a community leader for Palestinian neighbourhoods across occupied East Jerusalem.
Across the unseen border, the smooth asphalt road gives way to a dusty, uneven surface. Two wide lanes merge into a single unmarked track, and the painted pavements end.